form and foliage

Year round garden interest with minimal care


20 Comments

Creature Feature

Our traditional Halloween post! These creatures may be up to some tricks, but they’ll treat you all year long…

Sequoiadendron giganteum 'Pendulum', conifers, weeping giant sequoia

Sara has a strange encounter with two monsters in The Oregon Garden.

The monsters come out for Halloween, and the garden is no exception. Some plants, like the Sequoiadendron giganteum ‘Pendulum’ above, are downright bizarre, even supernatural.  With our minds on tricks and treats we are seeing creatures everywhere!

Coenosium Gardens, conifers, foliage gardening

This Acer saccharum ‘Newton Sentry’ looks more like a giant, multi-armed alien than a maple tree!

Autumn’s misty days exacerbate the eeriness; we wonder if the alien pictured above at Coenosium Gardens has designs on that tractor, or even the barn…we had barely escaped its clutches when we came upon the next horrible beast:

conifers, Picea abies 'Pendula', Coenosium Gardens

This creature, rearing up on its hind legs, looks particularly ferocious. It’s really a Picea omorika ‘Pendula Bruns’.

Not sure how much more our nerves could stand, we fled from Coenosium and sought sanctuary at Iseli Nursery.  All seemed well, until we saw the horrible multi-headed sea serpent sitting outside the front door, daring anyone to enter:

Chamaecyparis, topiary

A multi-headed creature from the deep guards the entry to Iseli Nursery

At Iseli, it appeared, it was too dangerous to linger. Would Buchholz & Buchholz be any safer?  We were weary of running and hoped to find safety soon.

Larix deciduosa 'Pendula', conifers, weeping larch

A strange furry pachyderm scared us away from Buchholz & Buchholz…

Buchholz was clearly not the place to stay!  An enormous creature greeted us in the Flora Wonder Arboretum and we decided that the only safe place was home, so we made our way back to Sonoma County.  At Quarryhill Botanical Garden we realized that we must have just missed a witch’s coven, as one of the witches left her broom in a pine tree:

conifers, pine trees

A witch’s broom in a Pinus densiflora at Quarryhill

So on to Circle Oak Ranch, where we breathed a collective sigh of relief.  No sooner were we settled than we realized that we had been invaded!

Cedrus deodara 'Divinely Blue', cedar, mixed foliage, colored foliage

Is this the Loch Ness Monster?

What had appeared to be a lovely specimen of Cedrus deodara ‘Divinely Blue’ turned into the Loch Ness Monster!  We recoiled and ran right into a series of webs…

Everything just looked eerier and eerier to us...spider webs were everywhere.

Everything just looked eerier and eerier to us…spider webs were everywhere.

Giant blue gardener-eating amoebas flowed along the ground, creeping along at our feet, sending out tentacles to nibble at our toes.

junipers, blue foliage, conifers

Amoeba-like Juniperus horizontalis ‘Blue Chip’ creep along the ground.

Some of the monstrous brutes have fierce teeth, which look like they could make short work of us.  We scurried away.  Where would we be safe?

succulents, foliage plants

The sharp leaves of Agave ‘Blue Glow’ look like so many enormous teeth.

How had we not noticed all of the teeth before?  They were everywhere!

succulents, black foliage

This Dyckia arizona tried to bite us as we passed.

Exhausted, and with darkness falling, we realized that we needed to seek shelter in the house.  We ran down the hill, passing a trio of demons, barely escaping their clutches.

Sequoiadendron giganteum 'Pendulum'

Three hulking monsters tried to grab us as we passed.

At last, safety was ours, warm and snug inside, with the doors locked, a fire lit and the dogs on guard.  We opened a bottle of wine and discussed how many narrow escapes we had had.  What we didn’t realize was that the creatures were waiting for us to leave to really let loose:

Sequoiadendron giganteum 'Pendulum'

Only when the humans leave and the sun goes down do the creatures really come out to party!

A very Happy Halloween to all from the Phantoms and Fiends at Form and Foliage!

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11 Comments

Color Riot

foliage gardening

Acer palmatum ‘Iijima Sunago’, Physocarpus opulifolius ‘Mindia’ and Spirea japonica ‘Goldflame’

The garden blogs and magazines are full of photographs of spring flowers as much of the country says farewell to a brutal winter. It’s no coincidence that many of these are macro shots, as the flowers are often a small part of the overall landscape this early in the season. If you’re a foliage gardener, however, you can get out your wide-angle lens and snap away, almost indiscriminately. The colors assail you from every part of the spectrum: yellows, blues, maroon, orange, red, bronze and of course, green. In the photo above, the Spirea does look like it is on fire, giving credence to its name of ‘Goldflame’.

conifers, foliage gardening

The landscape is rich with jewel tones of maples, spruce and ginkgo

At this time of year, texture and form take a back seat, as the colors are bright enough to leave afterimages on the retina. The fiery yellows and oranges are complemented by the richness of the greens and reds, while blue strikes a soothing note.

foliage gardening, evergreens

Coprosma repens ‘Plum Hussey’, Abelia ‘Kaleidoscope’ and Arctostaphylus densiflora ‘Emerald Carpet’

The spring colors are also borne by evergreen shrubs, which perk up and shine with the stronger sunlight and longer days. The trio in the photo above are all evergreen; they carried the garden interest through the winter and now aren’t about to be outshined by their deciduous neighbors.

foliage gardening, conifers

Cupressus cashmeriana, Viburnum nudum ‘Winterthur’ and Pinus ponderosa ‘Big Boomer’, with Berberis thunbergii ‘Orange Rocket’ and Quercus robur ‘Butterbee’

Some of the evergreens seem to spring to life as the deciduous shrubs and trees nearby leaf out. The soft, deep green conifers provide the perfect backdrop for the red and yellow of the barberry and oak.

conifers, foliage gardening

Pinus mugo ‘Ambergold’, Leptospermum ‘Dark Shadows’, Coprosma ‘County Park Red’, Juniperus x-media ‘Daub’s Frosted’, Cordyline ‘Design a Line Burgundy’, Libertia peregrins and Cupressus glabra ‘Blue Pyramid’

Even the dark foliage has a richness in spring, especially when repeated throughout the border. The Leptospermum, Coprosma and Cordyline are drenched in the same deep burgundy, which provides the perfect anchor for the yellow, blue and orange. Green, as always, is the unifying theme.

foliage gardening, maples, conifers

Acer palmatum ‘Mizuho Beni’, Juniperus communis ‘Kalebab’ and Loropetalum chinensis ‘Chang Nian Hong’

The burgundy of the Loropetalum in the photo above provides the same contrast to the greens and yellows and the orange of the maple (Acer palmatum ‘Villa Taranto)  just leafing out on the right.

redbuds, maples, foliage gardening

Even the seed pods of the Cercis chinensis are playing along with the theme

In the photo above we see the Spirea, Physocarpus and Acer ‘Iijima Sunago’ again from another angle. The oranges and reds are made even brighter when contrasted with the blue of the cedars over the door and the seed pods of the redbud in the foreground pay homage to the maples’ fiery tones.

conifers, foliage gardening

Ginkgo biloba ‘Mariken’ and Berberis thunbergii ‘Admiration’

Green and red are color wheel opposites and make dramatic combinations. This pair of deciduous hardwoods slumbered through the winter unnoticed until they burst into attention-grabbing foliage in spring.

conifers, foliage gardening

The same Berberis, flanked on the other side by evergreens

The ‘Admiration’ barberry has evergreen neighbors on its other side, and when it leafs out in its red glory it brings out the crimson stems of the Drimys lanceolata on the right and the bronze tones of the Thuja plicata ‘Whipcord’ and Cryptomeria japonica ‘Elegans Compacta behind.

foliage gardening, conifers

The dogwood is late to leaf out but the maple in front obliged, providing more red/green contrast with many yellow accents

Yellows, like all light colors, draw the eye and liven the landscape. Yellows are represented above by Abelia ‘Kaleidoscope’, Euonymus ‘Emerald ‘n Gold’, Yucca ‘Walbristar, Acer palmatum ‘Mizuho Beni’ and even the light green foliage of the Banksia in the foreground. A softer blue note is provided by Cedrus deodara ‘Prostrate Beauty’.

conifers, foliage gardening

Variations on a theme: the same colors with different plants

The other side of the path has a similar theme, but the Euonymus is joined by Phormium ‘Golden Ray’ and the blue is provided by Picea pungens ‘Lucretia’ and Agave ‘Blue Glow’.

conifers, foliage gardening

A rich tapestry of color

From the other angle, burgundy plays a much more significant role, and the blue of the plants is echoed in the ceramic pots around the folly.

conifers, foliage gardening

Softer combinations can be achieved by using analogous colors, those next to each other on the color wheel

The brighter colors draw the eye, but there is also beauty in the softness of groupings of colors that are next to each other on the color wheel, termed analogous combinations. The CedrusArctostaphylos and Banksia provide repose from the incendiary foliage around them.

conifers, succulents, agave vilmoriniana

While structure is not as obvious when bold color abounds, it can’t be ignored!

Even though we are overwhelmed with the spring colors, we can’t ignore structure and form completely. A trio of young Agave vilmoriniana, aptly named ‘octopus’, anchor a corner and provide textural as well as color contrast. We’re using more and more succulents in the foliage garden, interplanting among the conifers, maples and other woody plants. Stay tuned…


23 Comments

Creature Feature

Our traditional Halloween post! Happy Halloween to all and beware of creatures in the garden…

Sequoiadendron giganteum 'Pendulum', conifers, weeping giant sequoia

Sara has a strange encounter with two monsters in The Oregon Garden.

The monsters come out for Halloween, and the garden is no exception. Some plants, like the Sequoiadendron giganteum ‘Pendulum’ above, are downright bizarre, even supernatural.  With our minds on tricks and treats we are seeing creatures everywhere!

Coenosium Gardens, conifers, foliage gardening

This Acer saccharum ‘Newton Sentry’ looks more like a giant, multi-armed alien than a maple tree!

Autumn’s misty days exacerbate the eeriness; we wonder if the alien pictured above at Coenosium Gardens has designs on that tractor, or even the barn…we had barely escaped its clutches when we came upon the next horrible beast:

conifers, Picea abies 'Pendula', Coenosium Gardens

This creature, rearing up on its hind legs, looks particularly ferocious. It’s really a Picea omorika ‘Pendula Bruns’.

Not sure how much more our nerves could stand, we fled from Coenosium and sought sanctuary at Iseli Nursery.  All seemed well, until we saw the horrible multi-headed sea serpent sitting outside the front door, daring anyone to enter:

Chamaecyparis, topiary

A multi-headed creature from the deep guards the entry to Iseli Nursery

At Iseli, it appeared, it was too dangerous to linger. Would Buchholz & Buchholz be any safer?  We were weary of running and hoped to find safety soon.

Larix deciduosa 'Pendula', conifers, weeping larch

A strange furry pachyderm scared us away from Buchholz & Buchholz…

Buchholz was clearly not the place to stay!  An enormous creature greeted us in the Flora Wonder Arboretum and we decided that the only safe place was home, so we made our way back to Sonoma County.  At Quarryhill Botanical Garden we realized that we must have just missed a witch’s coven, as one of the witches left her broom in a pine tree:

conifers, pine trees

A witch’s broom in a Pinus densiflora at Quarryhill

So on to Circle Oak Ranch, where we breathed a collective sigh of relief.  No sooner were we settled than we realized that we had been invaded!

Cedrus deodara 'Divinely Blue', cedar, mixed foliage, colored foliage

Is this the Loch Ness Monster?

What had appeared to be a lovely specimen of Cedrus deodara ‘Divinely Blue’ turned into the Loch Ness Monster!  We recoiled and ran right into a series of webs…

Everything just looked eerier and eerier to us...spider webs were everywhere.

Everything just looked eerier and eerier to us…spider webs were everywhere.

Giant blue gardener-eating amoebas flowed along the ground, creeping along at our feet, sending out tentacles to nibble at our toes.

junipers, blue foliage, conifers

Amoeba-like Juniperus horizontalis ‘Blue Chip’ creep along the ground.

Some of the monstrous brutes have fierce teeth, which look like they could make short work of us.  We scurried away.  Where would we be safe?

succulents, foliage plants

The sharp leaves of Agave ‘Blue Glow’ look like so many enormous teeth.

How had we not noticed all of the teeth before?  They were everywhere!

succulents, black foliage

This Dyckia arizona tried to bite us as we passed.

Exhausted, and with darkness falling, we realized that we needed to seek shelter in the house.  We ran down the hill, passing a trio of demons, barely escaping their clutches.

Sequoiadendron giganteum 'Pendulum'

Three hulking monsters tried to grab us as we passed.

At last, safety was ours, warm and snug inside, with the doors locked, a fire lit and the dogs on guard.  We opened a bottle of wine and discussed how many narrow escapes we had had.  What we didn’t realize was that the creatures were waiting for us to leave to really let loose:

Sequoiadendron giganteum 'Pendulum'

Only when the humans leave and the sun goes down do the creatures really come out to party!

A very Happy Halloween to all from the Phantoms and Fiends at Form and Foliage!


16 Comments

The Hit Parade: The Best Foliage Plants, Part I

succulents, foliage plants

Yucca gloriosa var. recurva ‘Walbristar’ (bright star Yucca)

We’ve long intended to provide plant lists for readers, with criteria such as ‘most durable’, ‘best winter interest’, ‘prettiest, etc. However as we begin, after a long hiatus, to to assemble the lists, we find that the easiest one to create is the list of plants that we simply can’t imagine being without. These aren’t the hardiest or the prettiest or the most drought-tolerant, they’re the go-to plants that both do the job and look like they are doing it effortlessly. This list is from the perspective of a long-time San Francisco Bay Area gardener, so may not apply to your situation. However, others’ lists are simply excuses to create your own, so if you don’t have a ‘must have’ list already, this is your chance to begin! We will note up front that all of these selections are more expensive than many other plants of similar look and size. However, they are worth it! Plants that behave well, that do not readily outgrow their spaces, are not susceptible to pathogens or predators and have long lives should cost more. How many cartloads of perennials do you really need every season? Forego one of them and buy a special plant instead.

bright star yucca

‘Walbristar’ glows in the landscape

1. First on our list is Yucca gloriosa var. recurva ‘Walbristar’ (Zone 7-10), quite a mouthful so easier, perhaps, to simply think bright star Yucca. We used to use Phormiums extensively, and gradually got tired of reversions (when those glorious colored or striped leaves return to dull green), growth rates far beyond the promises on the tags and difficult upkeep. One of our favorites had been ‘Golden Ray’, which features yellow and green striped leaves and thrives in full sun. Once we discovered ‘Walbristar’, however, we turned our back on Phormiums and have never looked back! ‘Walbristar’ has both a more refined look and more refined colors, the leaves do not shred and brown and it develops a distinctly rosy tint in the winter:

Yucca 'Walbristar' turns rosy in cold temperatures

Yucca ‘Walbristar’ turns rosy in cold temperatures

It’s drought tolerant, thrives in most soils and needs little to no upkeep. So far all we’ve had to do is to cut off a few spent flower stalks. It’s smaller ‘cousins’ Yucca filamentosa ‘Color Guard’ and Yucca gloriosa ‘Tiny Star’ have many of the same attributes with a smaller profile (and ‘Color Guard’ is clump-forming).

conifers, foliage plants, colored foliage

Ginkgo biloba ‘Todd’s Dwarf’

2. Next is our favorite dwarf Ginkgo biloba, ‘Todd’s Dwarf’ (Zone 3-10). Ginkgo are ancient trees that have barely changed over the millennia. Where they have changed, man has been the manipulator, cultivating naturally occurring mutations and interesting chance seedlings and producing numerous garden-sized small trees. The species Ginkgo, albeit slow-growing, attains heights of 70-80 feet, while these petite versions are often under 4′ at 10 years. They have interesting branching and leaf variations although all retain a semblance of the iconic ‘butterfly’ leaf shape. Our favorite is ‘Todd’s Dwarf, due to its full habit ruffled leaves, but there are many others, such as ‘Mariken’, ‘Troll’, ‘Munchkin’, ‘Jade Butterfly’ and ‘Chase Manhattan’. They all turn butter-yellow in autumn and generally drop their leaves all at once, making a glowing carpet. Four of these tough trees survived the atomic blast at Hiroshima, and they can withstand heat, cold, drought and pollution. They are some of the easiest care, low maintenance garden plants.

conifers, evergreen foliage

Cedrus deodara ‘Cream Puff’

3. The lovely deodar cedar ‘Cream Puff’ (Zone 7-11) is one of the best medium-large evergreen shrubs for Bay Area gardens. The soft, green needles are a classic deodara feature, in this cultivar augmented by creamy white new growth that glows in the landscape, especially during the colder months. Deodara come from the middle East, and deal well with our Mediterranean climate. Once established they are drought-tolerant and can take full sun without any burning or scorching.

conifers, cedars

The needles of Cedrus deodara ‘Cream Puff’ are beautiful up close as well

Up close, the needles look like they have been flocked or frosted. ‘Cream Puff’ is slow-growing and can be kept to shrub form, as the one above, by snipping out any leaders that may form.

Agave x 'Blue Glow'

Agave x ‘Blue Glow’

4. We love our succulents, and rather than relegate them to their own beds, we prefer to choose larger varieties and interplant them into the rest of the garden. Agave x ‘Blue Glow’ (Zone 8-11) is our very favorite. In the world of Agave, this counts as a small plant, but as you can see, it holds its own amongst many reasonably large shrubs. ‘Blue Glow’ provides both stunning structure and color and the maroon margins are complemented with maroon-leaved plants such as Berberis, Cotinus or certain succulents. Its water needs are lower than the nearby shrubs, which we take care of by mixing a goodly dose of lava rock into the soil around it and planting it up about 2-3″. It’s on the same irrigation as the rest of the garden. This Agave will ‘pup’, or produce smaller plants around its base. The leaf spines are extremely sharp; if you have young children or dogs it is advisable to snip them off with a scissors. It’s hard to imagine a plant that provides this much oomph with virtually no maintenance.  looks great up close, too:

Agave 'Blue Glow' up close

Agave ‘Blue Glow’ up close

5. Trees never get enough attention on top plant lists, and there are several that we wouldn’t be without. Arbutus ‘Marina’ (Zone 7-9) tops the list for us because it provides all-year interest, incredible bark, glossy evergreen leaves and decorative flowers and fruit. Give it good drainage and a sunny spot and it will flourish. Judicious pruning can result in fabulous shapes and branching.

strawberry tree, interesting bark

The peeling, cinnamon-chartreuse bark of Arbutus ‘Marina’

The ancestry of ‘Marina’ is unknown; it was first observed at a nursery in San Francisco’s Marina District and it is likely a hybrid between two species of Arbutus. ‘Marina’ flowers year-round, with peak bloom in spring and fall, and the fruit persist from yellow immature to red mature fruit, for a very decorative effect. The leaves flush bronze, later maturing to deep green. There is not one part of this tree that is not showy! ‘Marina’ grows slowly but will eventually become a full-sized tree, so site it accordingly.

Arbutus 'Marina'

Evergreen glossy foliage adds texture and interest all year

6. Osmanthus heterophyllus ‘Goshiki’ is our favorite variegated evergreen shrub.

holly, variegated shrubs, evergreen shrubs

Osmanthus heterophyllus ‘Goshiki’

At a quick glance Osmanthus resembles holly and is commonly called ‘false holly’. There are many lovely green Osmanthus, and we use them extensively, but ‘Goshiki’ (Zones 6-9) is a special cultivar with its leaves flecked with yellow and cream. The new foliage has distinctly rosy-bronzy tones and the entire effect is light, bright and sparkling. We like to use ‘Goshiki’ against dark green conifers, where we get contrast of both color and texture. ‘Goshiki’ grows slowly and while it eventually will attain some size, it can be snipped back easily. Slow growth means that it is much harder for a plant to get out of hand! In this area it benefits from some afternoon shade, but it can be grown from almost full shade to full sun. It is a wonderful way to brighten a dark spot in the garden.

conifers

Thuja plicata ‘Whipcord’ works beautifully in a large container

7. If you like the look of ornamental grasses but hate the mess and upkeep, Thuja plicata ‘Whipcord’ (Zones 6-9) is your plant. With the fountain-like habit of a large ornamental grass and the no-nonsense low-care attributes of a conifer (which it is!), it is the perfect marriage of style and simplicity. The dark green foliage bronzes in winter, complementing the rusty brown stems. Its mounding, weeping habit is graceful and soft and its pendulous branches move in the breeze. We often purchase special, highly desirable plants and find ourselves walking around the garden, trying this spot or that, never finding quite the right one. We can always find a spot for ‘Whipcord’! It seems to fit in anywhere. ‘Whipcord’ is slow growing but over time will form a 4-5′ shrub that is almost as wide. Easy pruning keeps it much smaller, much longer.

colored foliage

Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple) ‘Esk Sunset’ gets our vote for loveliest tree

8. Acer pseduoplatanus ‘Esk Sunset’ (Zones 5-9) is such a lovely tree that we just can’t imagine being without it. Sure, there are hundreds–maybe thousands–of beautiful Japanese maples, and we love them all, but to some extent they begin to blur into each other after a while. ‘Esk Sunset’ is unique. Even the other pseudoplatanus cultivars don’t match its incredible flair. The leaves are mottled pale salmon and green, and the coloration varies from leaf to leaf.

sycamore maple

The undersides of the leaves of ‘Esk Sunset’ are purple!

And as if that weren’t enough, the undersides of the leaves are purple! When we catch sight of it backlit, we have to stop what we’re doing and just goggle at it. ‘Esk Sunset’ comes from the Esk Valley in New Zealand but some energetic nursery worker decided at some point that ‘Esk’ was short for ‘Eskimo’. Thus, you will usually see this tagged that way. ‘Esk Sunset’ is a slow-growing tree that appreciates some afternoon shade. The largest tree we’ve ever seen was at Buchholz & Buchholz Nursery in Oregon, an in-ground specimen that was about 25′ tall. You really don’t want to be without this one if you can grow it in your Zone.

conifers, California native plants

Pinus jeffreyi ‘Joppi’ – a California native at home in the garden

9. In California, planting natives is all the rage, and what we don’t understand is why that never seems to include the conifers? California has over 50 native conifers and many have garden-worthy cultivars.  Pinus jeffreyi ‘Joppi’ gets our vote for one of the best. It has a short, squat habit with long (up to 8″), deep green bristly needles and resembles some kind of troll-like creature. We half expect it to talk to us when we come near. The specimen in the photo above has not been pruned, but we’re considering borrowing a technique from bonsai and opening up the structure a bit so that we can see the trunk. This will grow slowly to about six feet tall in 10 years, but it can be kept squat by cutting out the central leader. Don’t you want to pet it?

 

Robinia pseudoacacia 'Frisia' (golden locust)

Robinia pseudoacacia ‘Frisia’ (golden locust)

10. We end this entry with a controversial choice: Robinia pseudoacacia ‘Frisia’. ‘Frisia’ is a large, fast-growing tree that not all gardens can accommodate. Some say it self-sows almost to the point of invasiveness; we have never found it so here, with our drip irrigation and sumptuous mulching. Others complain about the brittle branches–again, they have never presented a problem for us. We do some pruning to tidy it up but other than that we leave it alone. The key to making this tree work in your garden is having enough space for a large tree, and preferably siting it against a backdrop of darker foliage, such as the redwoods in the photo. Some do regularly prune it hard and use it as a large shrub, but we prefer the graceful canopy and the dappled shade that it creates. The light underneath is golden and bright. ‘Frisia’ only gets more beautiful in autumn, when its chartreuse foliage softens to a creamy golden yellow. It rivals the Ginkgos for its beacon-like effect as the days shorten at year end.

Note:

Jan and Sara took a brief hiatus from Form and Foliage in the first half of 2014 as Jan took photography classes and Sara became the website editor for the American Conifer Society. We hope to be back on a more regular schedule in the second half of the year.

 

 


22 Comments

Creature Feature

Sequoiadendron giganteum 'Pendulum', conifers, weeping giant sequoia

Sara has a strange encounter with two monsters in The Oregon Garden.

The monsters come out for Halloween, and the garden is no exception. Some plants, like the Sequoiadendron giganteum ‘Pendulum’ above, are downright bizarre, even supernatural.  With our minds on tricks and treats we are seeing creatures everywhere!

Coenosium Gardens, conifers, foliage gardening

This Acer saccharum ‘Newton Sentry’ looks more like a giant, multi-armed alien than a maple tree!

Autumn’s misty days exacerbate the eeriness; we wonder if the alien pictured above at Coenosium Gardens has designs on that tractor, or even the barn…we had barely escaped its clutches when we came upon the next horrible beast:

conifers, Picea abies 'Pendula', Coenosium Gardens

This creature, rearing up on its hind legs, looks particularly ferocious. It’s really a Picea omorika ‘Pendula Bruns’.

Not sure how much more our nerves could stand, we fled from Coenosium and sought sanctuary at Iseli Nursery.  All seemed well, until we saw the horrible multi-headed sea serpent sitting outside the front door, daring anyone to enter:

Chamaecyparis, topiary

A multi-headed creature from the deep guards the entry to Iseli Nursery

At Iseli, it appeared, it was too dangerous to linger. Would Buchholz & Buchholz be any safer?  We were weary of running and hoped to find safety soon.

Larix deciduosa 'Pendula', conifers, weeping larch

A strange furry pachyderm scared us away from Buchholz & Buchholz…

Buchholz was clearly not the place to stay!  An enormous creature greeted us in the Flora Wonder Arboretum and we decided that the only safe place was home, so we made our way back to Sonoma County.  At Quarryhill Botanical Garden we realized that we must have just missed a witch’s coven, as one of the witches left her broom in a pine tree:

conifers, pine trees

A witch’s broom in a Pinus densiflora at Quarryhill

So on to Circle Oak Ranch, where we breathed a collective sigh of relief.  No sooner were we settled than we realized that we had been invaded!

Cedrus deodara 'Divinely Blue', cedar, mixed foliage, colored foliage

Is this the Loch Ness Monster?

What had appeared to be a lovely specimen of Cedrus deodara ‘Divinely Blue’ turned into the Loch Ness Monster!  We recoiled and ran right into a series of webs…

Everything just looked eerier and eerier to us...spider webs were everywhere.

Everything just looked eerier and eerier to us…spider webs were everywhere.

Giant blue gardener-eating amoebas flowed along the ground, creeping along at our feet, sending out tentacles to nibble at our toes.

junipers, blue foliage, conifers

Amoeba-like Juniperus horizontalis ‘Blue Chip’ creep along the ground.

Some of the monstrous brutes have fierce teeth, which look like they could make short work of us.  We scurried away.  Where would we be safe?

succulents, foliage plants

The sharp leaves of Agave ‘Blue Glow’ look like so many enormous teeth.

How had we not noticed all of the teeth before?  They were everywhere!

succulents, black foliage

This Dyckia arizona tried to bite us as we passed.

Exhausted, and with darkness falling, we realized that we needed to seek shelter in the house.  We ran down the hill, passing a trio of demons, barely escaping their clutches.

Sequoiadendron giganteum 'Pendulum'

Three hulking monsters tried to grab us as we passed.

At last, safety was ours, warm and snug inside, with the doors locked, a fire lit and the dogs on guard.  We opened a bottle of wine and discussed how many narrow escapes we had had.  What we didn’t realize was that the creatures were waiting for us to leave to really let loose:

Sequoiadendron giganteum 'Pendulum'

Only when the humans leave and the sun goes down do the creatures really come out to party!

A very Happy Halloween to all from the Phantoms and Fiends at Form and Foliage!


17 Comments

Trunk Show

Lagerstroemia fauriei

This Japanese crape myrtle at the Raulston Arboretum doesn’t need to be in flower to attract attention

We are known to wax poetic at Form and Foliage over the joys of, well, form and foliage.  Most of the time, that means that we show you gorgeous woody plants and their leaves, with a generous sprinkling of ornaments such as cones and berries.  Now, however, we’d like to direct your attention to a part of the plant that tends to get short shrift in garden photography, and in our view contributes much to a tree’s eye appeal: the trunk.

Quarryhill Botanical Garden

Acer griseum is commonly called paperbark maple and it is easy to see why

In fact, there are some trees, such as this paper bark maple (Acer griseum) photographed at Quarryhill Botanical Garden, that would be worth having even if they remained leafless!  The paper bark maple actually has very nice leaves, albeit not the most dramatic.  But the peeling bark adds texture and interest to the garden all year long.

strawberry tree

Arbutus ‘Marina’ is generally in a multi-stemmed form to get as much mileage from those trunks as possible

Another tree with peeling bark is Arbutus ‘Marina’, a hybrid cultivar of our native California madrone.  The young trees have semi-gloss, cinnamon bark that, when it ages, breaks open to display a chartreuse under-layer.  The evergreen leaves, flowers and fruit of this tree are all stunning, but the trunk is the attention-grabber.

Physocarpus Coppertina

We chose this ninebark Coppertina for its coppery leaves, but now we’re in love with the trunk

While we’re on the subject of peeling, let’s look at Physocarpus, a shrub whose trunk peels with such abandon that its common name is ninebark. We’ve never counted the layers, but we make a point of pruning this shrub to showcase the lovely textured trunk.  Like Arbutus ‘Marina’, ninebark has beautiful leaves (in colors that range from gold and lime to copper and maroon), flowers and berries.

California redwood, coast redwood

The branches on these 25 year old redwoods are now far above our heads, so we focus on the trunks

Not all trunks have to be burlesque strippers to command attention, however.  Some do it simply with grandeur and presence.  The redwood crown provides shade but the trunk adds sculptural and textural interest, as well as rich color that deepens in the winter rains.

Olea wilsonii, fruitless olive trees

Olive trees are one of the best selections for interesting trunks

Some trees, such as olives, are known for their naturally occurring intriguing, twisted shapes, which can be enhanced by careful pruning.  The tree on the right is showcasing the characteristic knobby protuberances that develop as the trees age. These olives were planted as small trees about 12 years ago, primarily for shade, but now also serve as sculpture.

Olea wilsonii, Arbutus 'Marina', Quercus agrifolia

A trunk trifecta of olives, Abutus ‘Marina’ and an ancient live oak

In this trunk trifecta, the olive trunks in the foreground are echoed by the cinnamon trunk of Arbutus ‘Marina’ in the middle and that of the aged live oak (Quercus agrifolia) in the rear. Color, texture, shape—these trunks have it all! And as we remind you repeatedly, they don’t hibernate in winter.

David's maple, Quarryhill Botanical Garden

An enormous Acer davidii at Quarryhill dominates its location with its strong trunk and lovely bark

This David’s maple is less than 25 years old and serves as a sculpture—and a bench!—in the woodland landscape of Quarryhill Botanical Garden.  It stands out against the surrounding thicket and provides plenty of interest, even when bare of foliage.

The Oregon Garden

Japanese larch ‘Diana’, its trunk covered with lichen, is a sight on a frosty winter morning in its leafless sparkle

Larches are unusual amongst conifers in that they drop their needles each year, leaving only bare trunk and branches.  The Larix kaempferi ‘Diana’, pictured above, holds court in late autumn at The Oregon Garden, with its shaggy, sculptural trunk and branches festooned with lichens.

Betula papyrifera

The winter landscape in this Bellingham WA garden is illuminated by the trunk of the paper birch

Some trunks make their statement by their color rather than their form or texture.  The stark white trunks of Betula papyrifera, or paper birch, are much more visible in winter when the tree is leafless.  On drab days they light up the garden and draw the eye.

Cornus stolonifera Arctic Fire

The trunk of this red-twig dogwood is so incendiary that its name – Arctic Fire – is patented!

Red-twig dogwoods (Cornus stolonifera spp) are an easy way to add boldly colored trunks to the winter landscape.  Unassuming shrubs when in leaf, they take center stage when wearing only their bare branches.  There are yellow-twigged versions, as well.

Japanese maple, red twigs, red stems

Vivid stems are the hallmark of the coral bark maple (Acer palmatum ‘Sango Kaku’)

Our ‘go to’ tree for red trunks and stems is the coral bark maple, whose botanical cultivar name ‘Sango Kaku’ means ‘coral tower’ or ‘coral pillar’ in Japanese.  The above shot was taken in spring as the tree is leafing out with chartreuse foliage, and the drama of the complementary colors (remember the color wheel!) is evident.

In autumn the trunk and leaves are nearly the same color

In autumn the trunk and leaves are nearly the same color

‘Sango Kaku’s autumn display is more muted, as the leaves turn to soft yellow-orange.

Japanese maple

Winter is when we appreciate the coral bark maple the most, when the leaves are gone and it is purely a ‘trunk show’

Coral bark maple is a lovely small tree that grows in full sun in our zone 9b.  There are dwarf varieties available, as well, such as ‘Aka Kawa Hime’.  The red tends to be most vivid on new growth, so the dwarf, slower growing cultivars will provide more eye candy at eye level.

Acer palmatum 'Mizuho Beni'

There are Japanese maples with golden trunks, as well, such as ‘Mizuho Beni’

Japanese maples have trunks with all shades of yellow, gold and green, as well as coral.  In addition, they have some of the loveliest shapes, most delectable new growth and gorgeous fall color of any trees.  Surely you have room for just one?

We’ve saved the most unusual trunk for last.  While some may call it a weeping Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii ‘Pendula’), others would just call it an elephant!:

elephant shaped tree

The ‘elephant’ at Buchholz & Buchholz Nursery in Oregon – a weeping Douglas fir


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Slow for the Cone Zone

Bruns weeping spruce (Picea omorika 'Pendula Bruns') has gorgeous purple cones

Bruns weeping spruce (Picea omorika ‘Pendula Bruns’) has gorgeous purple cones

There are lots of reasons to add a few conifers to your landscape, and one of the most compelling is the decorative cones that many bear.  Fir, or Abies, have the reputation for having the dressiest cones, but as you’ll see, even the under-appreciated pines put on some stylish decoration that lasts all year. So slow down and observe when you pass a conifer and enter the ‘cone zone’!

Wine red female cones drip off the branches of Picea orientalis 'Early Gold' in spring.

Wine red female cones drip off the branches of Picea orientalis ‘Early Gold’ in spring.

The following series of three images depicts the cones of Abies koreana ‘Horstmann’s Silberlocke’ through the seasons. This tree wears gorgeous foliage even without its ‘jewelry’, and together with its cones makes one of the most decorative specimens in the garden, even giving floriferous angiosperms a run for their money.

The cones of Abies koreana (Korean fir) 'Horstmann's Silberlocke' in early spring

The cones of Abies koreana (Korean fir) ‘Horstmann’s Silberlocke’ in early spring

The cones start out as small, chartreuse gumdrops and then become lavender and celadon eggs with a texture and design that would make Faberge proud.

Korean fir, Abies koreana 'Horstmann's Silberlocke'

These cones decorate a tree that is already stunning, with its curved silver-lined needles.

By autumn they have dried out and matured  to rich rusty brown, resembling intricately woven baskets.

The autumn cones of 'Horstmann's Silberlocke' Korean fir shatter when touched, leaving their spindles.

The autumn cones of ‘Horstmann’s Silberlocke’ Korean fir shatter when touched, leaving their spindles.

The spruces (genus Picea) in the next two photos, taken at Quarryhill Botanical Garden in Glen Ellen, CA, have similarly shaped cones but with dramatically different colors.  Well, some of us like emeralds and others prefer rubies – it’s the same with cones.

The limey elongated cones of Wison's spruce (Picea wilsonii) complement the turquoise needles on this specimen at Quarryhill Botanical Garden.

The limey elongated cones of Wison’s spruce (Picea wilsonii) complement its turquoise needles

Both Picea wilsonii and Picea likiangensis hail from China, and both get too big for most gardens, but we love to seek them out and enjoy their lovely ornaments.  Both of these specimens are large and laden with cones.

spruce

A cone-studded Picea likiangensis specimen at Quarryhill Botanical Garden.

As a general rule, firs hold their cones upright and spruces, as in the two examples above, have pendulous cones. The quite, unassuming ‘Poulsen’ fir (Abies x. arnoldiana ‘Poulsen’ doesn’t put out a huge display of cones every year, but when it does, it’s a showstopper.

firs, conifers, cones

The black-raspberry cones on Abies x arnoliana ‘Poulsen’ sit pertly atop the branches

They start out in spring a rosy black-raspberry, then deepen to grapey purple.

pine cones

Poulsen fir (Abies x arnoldiana ‘Poulsen’) cones in early summer

By late summer/autumn they have faded to a soft lilac.

Poulsen's fir with

Soft lilac cones of Abies x arnoldiana ‘Poulsen’, a shrubby conifer with a dignified habit

Even though most of us call the cones of all conifers ‘pine cones’, the cones borne by pines look very different from those of the firs and spruces.  Many of true pine cones look like they are carved out of wood when they are young, as with the new cones of one of the mugo pines (Pinus mugo var. mugho).

Like wooden scrimshaw, a baby cone of a mugo pine looks as if it is carved from one solid piece

Like wooden scrimshaw, a baby cone of a mugo pine looks as if it is carved from one solid piece

With its yellow cone in early summer, this branch of ‘Golden Ghost’ red pine (Pinus densiflora ‘Golden Ghost’) resembles a bird with flamboyant plumage. The two-toned needles put on even more of a display than the cones!

Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) 'Golden Ghost' in spring with new needles and cone

Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) ‘Golden Ghost’ in spring with new needles and cones

In this photo of ‘Golden Ghost’ we see both this year’s cone (the tiny ‘carved’ one on the left) and last year’s mature cone (on the right).

pine cone, pine cones

Two years of cones on Japanese red pine ‘Golden Ghost’

This Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii ‘Thunderhead’) is a prolific coner, with lovely green, sculptural cones.

Japanese black pine 'Thunderhead'

Even the ladybugs seem to like ‘Thunderhead’s apple green cones

Since we’re moving through the colors, white pines have great cones, too!  They are much more fragile than those of the red or black pines, and often have a sap glacee that makes them glitter in the sunlight.

pine cones

Sap-glazed cones of Pinus strobus ‘Pendula’

We mentioned emeralds and rubies earlier, but some cones are aquamarines. The cones of this Oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) don’t even look like cones.

pine cones

These Platycladus cones look more like gems sprinkled along the branches

All of the cones that we’ve shown you so far are females – they contain the ovaries and ultimately the fertilized seeds. But let’s not forget the boys! Unlike much of nature, where the male of the species gets the elegant plumage and fine feathers, in plants the male’s display is generally less showy.  But we think that this crowd of pollen cones on the ‘Golden Ghost’ pine are one of the trustiest signs of spring!

pine cones

Pollen cones on Pinus densiflora ‘Golden Ghost’

So whether you’re walking in your own garden or a botanical preserve such as Quarryhill, when you see a conifer, stop and take a look.  If more people don’t start slowing for the Cone Zone, Form and Foliage is going to begin issuing citations!